This dissertation encountered several challenges. However, we associate the success to God’s immeasurable direction. We first of all give thanks to God almighty. A number of persons played a vital role in the final write up of the work therefore it will be important to acknowledge their contribution.
We register our sincere appreciation to our supervisor, Ms. Constance AkuruguSabiru for working tirelessly to give shape to this work through her timely comments and suggestions. May God increase you for greater heights.
We also register our sincere thanksto Mr. MusahEkpampo for laying the foundation of this work through his timely and constructive comments and suggestion during the proposal writing period. May the Good Lord richly bless you.
Furthermore, we are grateful to the entire inhabitants of Piisi for their time and cooperation during the data collection period.
Finally, to all those who have contributed in various ways to the success of the work we say thank you.
Climate change and its numerous effects continue to threaten and influence national and global environmental policy. It is considered crucial in determining the health condition of the people and their livelihood sustainability, especially those living in the country side and is very close to nature. The need to emphasize on climate change and its effects is to influence a great deal, the policy direction of government, non-governmental organizations(NGOs) and other sectors in the health and more especially food production. The study posits that, there is a relationship between the effects of climate change and food security. The principal objective of this study is to examine the effects of climate change on food security in Piisi in the Wa Municipality.
Data collection tools employed is interview aided by semi – structured questionnaire to collect primary data. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze data on the demographic characteristics such as; occupational, sex, age and educational status of respondents whiles qualitative approach was used to analyze data on the causes of climate change, the effects of climate change on food security and the coping strategies of the people.
The study revealed that about 50% of the people do not have enough to eat all year round and have to resort to other ways of coping with the situation. Strategies such as using seeds meant for next season, borrowing from friends and relatives, blending breakfast and lunch as elevenses, petty trading and many others are the ways people of Piisi employ to cope with the impact of climate change on food production. Based on this, it is recommended that governments, agricultural research institutions, NGOs and other relevant bodies provide the people of Piisi with improved seeds, fertilizers, modern farming equipments, irrigation dam and credit facilities to boost crop yield.
- Amoateng, K. N. (2009). Climate Change in Ghana: Blog Action Day Climate change in Ghana has become a threat to livelihoods. Modern Ghana News Alert Service email@example.com.Abibimman Foundation, Ghana National Youth Coalition on Climate Change (GNYCCC).
- APF and NEPAD Secretariat (2007). 8th Meeting of the Africa Partnership Forum Berlin, Germany: Climate Change and Africa.Key Political Messages & Action Points.Supporting Technical Document.
- Arun, K. C., &Keshav, L. M. (2006). Food Insecurity and Coping Strategies in Rural Areas of Nepal: A Case Study of Dailekh District in Mid-Western Development Region. Journal of International Development and Cooperation, Vol.12, No.2, 2006, pp. 25–45.
- Brown, O. (2007). Climate change and forced migration: Observations, projections and implications.Fighting climate change:Human solidarity in a divided worldHuman Development Report OfficeOCCASIONAL PAPER.
- Clement, A. (2008). Research Methodology: Theory and practice in the Social Scientist.
- Climate Change Fact Sheet (n.d.). New Climate Change Facts Sheet: Facts about Climate Change. Retrieved 20 May 2012, from http://www.thegreatwarming.com/pdf/ClimateChangeFactSheet.pdf.
- Daniel, G. M. (1995). FCND Discussion Paper No. 8 Measuring Food Insecurity: The Frequency and Severity of “Coping Strategies”. Food Consumption andNutrition. Division International Food Policy Research Institute1200 Seventeenth Street, N.W. Washington, D.C.
- Ditto, S. (2011, March 8).A former Pro-Vice Chancellor. Building Capacity for Ecology in Ghana, [Press release]. Ghana News Agency (GNA).
- Elias, R.,& Cruz, G. (2005). The knowledge that saved the sea gysies: A world of science.
- Fatma, D., Youba S., & Jean P. T. (2001).Climate Change andDevelopment. Climate Change and Sustainable Development Strategies in the Making: What Should West African Countries Expect?EnvironnementetDéveloppement du Tiers Monde (ENDA-TM)54 Rue Carnot, B.P. 3370 Dakar, Sénégal. http://www.enda.sn/energie.
- Fiona, J., W. (2004). Donald S. L. and Fiona J. W. (eds).Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation: A Canadian Perspective. Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Directorate,Natural Resources CanadaOttawa, Ontario. Retrieved 24 May 2012.http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/.
- Gahukar, R. T. (2009). Food security: The challenges of climate change and bioenergy.Current Science, Vol. 96, No. 1.
- Ghana News Agency GNA (Executive Producer). (2011, April 12). Major News Hours- 7:00 & 10:30pm. [Television broadcast].Ghana.
- Given, L. M. (2008). Purposive Sampling. The Sage Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods.
- IPCC (2001). James, J. M., Osvando, F. C., Neil, A. L., David J. D., & Kasey, S. W. (Eds). Climate Change: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability.
- IPCC (2007). Parry M.L., Canziani O.F., Palutikof J.P., van der Linden P.J. & Hanson C.E. (Eds). Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
- James, C., Charles, N. & Rashid, H. (2010). Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Implications for Food Security in Southern Africa.http//.www.climatechangeinafrica.net.http://www.ifad.org/climate/resources/africa.pdf
- Janet, C., & Reyes T. (2008). Food Security and Climate Change: The answer is biodiversity. A review of scientific publications on climate change adaptation in agriculture.
- Jeffrey, S., Christine, M., & Kelley L. (2009). Climate Change Adaptation and Conflict: A Preliminary Review of the Issues.
- Joachim, V. B. (2008). Impact of Climate Change on Food Security in Times of High
Energy Prices:Director General, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington D.C., USA.
- Mfusi, M., Mjabuliseni, N., & Sheryl, L. H.(2009).Investigating household food insecurity coping strategies and the impact of crop production on food security using coping strategy index (CSI).
- NOAA National Weather Service (2007). Climate Change. Available at http://www.climatescience.gov/.
- Nyong, A., Adesina, F., & Osman B. E. (2006). The value of indigenous knowledge in climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies in the African Sahel.
- Obeng, F. K. (2011 February 27). Lecturer predicts worse rainfall pattern in the North Ghana, [Press release] Ghana News Agency (GNA).
- Panneerselvan R. (2009). Research Methodology. Overview of Research Methodology.
- Relay, V. (2003). Fairfax County Department of System Management for Human
Services: Overview of Sampling Procedures. Available at www.fairfaxcounty.gov/aboutfairfax.
- Ricardo, L., & Timothy E. W. (2009). Facilitating an International Agreement on Climate Change: Adaptation to Climate Change. A Proposal of the Global Leadership for Climate Action.
- Riziki S. S. (2011). Tracking Effective Indigenous Adaptation Strategies on Impacts of Climate Variability on Food Security and Health of Subsistence Farmers in Tanzania.
- Rosenfeld, M., &Maddinson, D. (1998). Climate Change Literature Review: Global, Regional, and Urban – An Introduction.
- Roy, D., (2001). Issues in Food Security: Climate Change and Food Security. United StatesDepartment of Agriculture. Retrieved on 21 May 2012 from http://www.ers.usda.
- Ryan, L., Mihoko K., Pia T. (2011). Discussion Paper Series. Africa Adaptation ProgrammeExperiences Gender and Climate Change: Advancing Development through an Integrated Gender Perspective.
- Siri, E., Karen, B., & Lynn, R. (2008). Department of Sociology and Human GeographyUniversity of Oslo. Climate Change in Eastern and Southern Africa: Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation.
- Stern, N. A. (2007). The Global Deal: Climate change and the creation of a new era of progress and prosperity.
- Trochim, W. M. K. (2008). Research Methods, Knowledge Base: Web Center for Social Research Methods.
- TTFPP (2011). (UDS).Third Trimester Field Practical Programme:Proposal writing on the needs and aspirations of Piisi (unpublished).
- Twumasi, P. A. (2001). Professor of Sociology and Former Dean of Faculty of Social Studies, University of Ghana Legon: Social Research in Rural Communities(2nd Ed.) [Brochure].
The study examined the effect of informal networks on productivity. To this end, five hypotheses were tested.
In the first instance, it was hypothesized that free flow of information was more likely to have a significant effect on productivity. This hypothesis was supported (Beta =.706, p<.002). This finding is consistent with work done by Keith (1996) on informal networks, which indicates that free flow of information within an organization keeps its members informed and helps in decision making which affects the overall achievement of the organizations objectives hence productivity.
The second hypothesis states that friendships within the organization have a significant effect on productivity. This hypothesis was supported (Beta =.013, p<.935). This finding is consistent in relation to work done by Mayo (1924-1933) on productivity, which indicates that maintaining a friendly relationship with subordinates makes employees feel a sense of belongingness in the organization which creates a positive attitude towards productivity.
Again, the third hypothesis states that a good interpersonal relationship with subordinates is expected to have a significant effect on productivity. This was supported (Beta = .121 p<.502). This finding is consistent with work done by Mayo (1924-1933) at the Hawthorne experiment which revealed that maintaining good interpersonal relationships with subordinate leads to an increase in the firm’s productivity.
Furthermore, the fourth hypothesis states that cohesiveness is likely to have a significant effect on a firm’s productivity.This hypothesis was supported (Beta =.054, p<.784). The finding is consistent with work done by Mayo (1924-1933) which indicates thatemployees who remain closely knit with one another frequently are more productive than those who are more isolated.
Lastly, the hypothesis states that, workers for support each have a significant effect onproductivity. This was however not supported (Beta=-.318, p <.121).